Understanding risk: cybersecurity for the modern grid.

Didier Giarratano, Marketing Cyber Security at Energy Digital Solutions/Energy, Schneider Electric discusses the challenge for utilities is to provide reliable energy delivery with a focus on efficiency and sustainable sources.

There’s an evolution taking place in the utilities industry to build a modern distribution automation grid. As the demand for digitised, connected and integrated operations increases across all industries, the challenge for utilities is to provide reliable energy delivery with a focus on efficiency and sustainable sources.

The pressing need to improve the uptime of critical power distribution infrastructure is forcing change. However, as power networks merge and become ‘smarter’, the benefits of improved connectivity also bring greater cybersecurity risks, threatening to impact progress.

Grid complexity in a new world of energy
Electrical distribution systems across Europe were originally built for centralised generation and passive loads – not for handling evolving levels of energy consumption or complexity. Yet, we are entering a new world of energy. One with more decentralised generation, intermittent renewable sources like solar and wind, a two-way flow of decarbonised energy, as well as an increasing engagement from demand-side consumers.

The grid is now moving to a more decentralised model, disrupting traditional power delivery and creating more opportunities for consumers and businesses to contribute back into the grid with renewables and other energy sources. As a result, the coming decades will see a new kind of energy consumer – that manages energy production and usage to drive cost, reliability, and sustainability tailored to their specific needs.

The rise of distributed energy is increasing grid complexity. It is evolving the industry from a traditional value chain to a more collaborative environment. One where customers dynamically interface with the distribution grid and energy suppliers, as well as the wider energy market. Technology and business models will need to evolve for the power industry to survive and thrive.

The new grid will be considerably more digitised, more flexible and dynamic. It will be increasingly connected, with greater requirements for performance in a world where electricity makes up a higher share of the overall energy mix. There will be new actors involved in the power ecosystem such as transmission system operators (TSOs), distribution system operators (DSOs), distributed generation operators, aggregators and prosumers.

Regulation and compliancy
Cyber security deployment focuses on meeting standards and regulation compliancy. This approach benefits the industry by increasing awareness of the risks and challenges associated with a cyberattack. As the electrical grid evolves in complexity, with the additions of distributed energy resource integration and feeder automation, a new approach is required – one that is oriented towards risk management.

Currently, utility stakeholders are applying cyber security processes learned from their IT peers, which is putting them at risk. Within the substation environment, proprietary devices once dedicated to specialised applications are now vulnerable. Sensitive information available online that describes how these devices work, can be accessed by anyone, including those with malicious intent.

With the right skills, malicious actors can hack a utility and damage systems that control the grid. In doing so, they also risk the economy and security of a country or region served by that grid.

Regulators have anticipated the need for a structured cyber security approach. In the U.S. the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection (NERC CIP) requirements set out what is needed to secure North America’s electric system. The European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP) does much the same in Europe. We face new and complex attacks every day, some of which are organised by state actors, which is leading to a reconsideration of these and the overall security approach for the industry.

Developing competencies and cross-functional teams for IT-OT integration

Due to the shift towards open communication platforms, such as Ethernet and IP, systems that manage critical infrastructure have become increasingly vulnerable. As operators of critical utility infrastructure investigate how to secure their systems, they often look to more mature cybersecurity practices. However, the IT approach to cybersecurity is not always appropriate with the operational constraints utilities are facing.

These differences in approach mean that cybersecurity solutions and expertise geared toward the IT world are often inappropriate for operational technology (OT) applications. Sophisticated attacks today are able to leverage cooperating services, like IT and telecommunications. As utilities experience the convergence of IT and OT, it becomes necessary to develop cross-functional teams to address the unique challenges of securing technology that spans both worlds.

Protecting against cyber threats now requires greater cross-domain activity where engineers, IT managers and security managers are required to share their expertise to identify the potential issues and attacks affecting their systems

A continuous process: assess, design, implement and manage
Cybersecurity experts agree that standards by themselves will not bring the appropriate security level. It’s not a matter of having ‘achieved’ a cyber secure state. Adequate protection from cyber threats requires a comprehensive set of measures, processes, technical means and an adapted organisation.

It is important for utilities to think about how organisational cybersecurity strategies will evolve over time. This is about staying current with known threats in a planned and iterative manner. Ensuring a strong defence against cyberattacks is a continuous process and requires an ongoing effort and a recurring annual investment. Cybersecurity is about people, processes and technology. Utilities need to deploy a complete programme consisting of proper organisation, processes and procedures to take full advantage of cybersecurity protection technologies.

To establish and maintain cyber secure systems, utilities can follow a four-point approach:

1. Conduct a risk assessment
The first step involves conducting a comprehensive risk assessment based on internal and external threats. By doing so, OT specialists and other utility stakeholders can understand where the largest vulnerabilities lie, as well as document the creation of security policy and risk migration

2. Design a security policy and processes
A utility’s cybersecurity policy provides a formal set of rules to be followed. These should be led by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commision (IEC)’s family of standards (ISO27k) providing best practice recommendations on information security management. The purpose of a utility’s policy is to inform employees, contractors, and other authorised users of their obligations regarding protection of technology and information assets. It describes the list of assets that must be protected, identifies threats to those assets, describes authorised users’ responsibilities and associated access privileges, and describes unauthorised actions and resulting accountability for the violation of the security policy. Well-designed security processes are also important. As system security baselines change to address emerging vulnerabilities, cybersecurity system processes must be reviewed and updated regularly to follow this evolution. One key to maintaining and effective security baseline is to conduct a review once or twice a year

3. Execute projects that implement the risk mitigation plan
Select cybersecurity technology that is based on international standards, to ensure appropriate security policy and proposed risk mitigation actions can be followed. A ‘secure by design’ approach that is based on international standards like IEC 62351 and IEEE 1686 can help further reduce risk when securing system components

4. Manage the security programme
Effectively managing cybersecurity programmes requires not only taking into account the previous three points, but also the management of information and communication asset lifecycles. To do that, it’s important to maintain accurate and living documentation about asset firmware, operating systems and configurations. It also requires a comprehensive understanding of technology upgrade and obsolescence schedules, in conjunction with full awareness of known vulnerabilities and existing patches. Cybersecurity management also requires that certain events trigger assessments, such as certain points in asset life cycles or detected threats

For utilities, security is everyone’s business. Politicians and the public are more and more aware that national security depends on local utilities being robust too. Mitigating risk and anticipating attack vulnerabilities on utility grids and systems is not just about installing technology. Utilities must also implement organisational processes to meet the challenges of a decentralised grid. This means regular assessment and continuous improvement of their cybersecurity and physical security process to safeguard our new world of energy.

@SchneiderElec #PAuto #Power


Instsignpost's Blog

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Towards a liveable Earth!

Addressing global issues through co-innovation to create new value!

Yokogawa has developed sustainability goals for the year 2050 that will guide its efforts to make the world a better place for future generations.

Yokogawa’s efforts to achieve a sustainable society are in keeping with the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in 2015 by the 21st Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) to provide a basis for global efforts to tackle issues related to climate change. The agreement calls for the achievement of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by the second half of this century. Also in 2015, the UN adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development centering on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Through these initiatives, a global consensus is developing on how to address these issues, and the direction that companies should take is becoming clear.

Yokogawa’s efforts to achieve sustainability and build a brighter future for all are based on the company’s corporate philosophy, which states: “As a company, our goal is to contribute to society through broad-ranging activities in the areas of measurement, control, and information. Individually, we aim to combine good citizenship with the courage to innovate.” To ensure a flexible response to environmental and technology changes and guide its long-term efforts to address social issues, Yokogawa is committing itself to the achievement of goals that are based on a vision of where our society should be by the year 2050. Through the selection of products and solutions and the formulation of medium-term business plans and the like that are based on environmental, economic, and societal considerations, Yokogawa will carry out the detailed tasks needed to achieve these goals.

Commenting on this initiative, Takashi Nishijima, Yokogawa President and CEO, says: “Companies have a growing responsibility to respond to issues such as population growth and the rising use of fossil fuels that are addressed in the Paris Agreement and the SDGs. Yokogawa provides solutions that improve the stability, efficiency, and safety of operations at industrial plants and other infrastructure facilities by, for example, speeding up processes, reducing workloads, and saving energy. Yokogawa needs to work harder to broaden its solutions so that it can address other issues that impact our society. Yokogawa will establish key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate on a medium-term basis the achievement of its sustainability goals, and will continue to create new value through co-innovation with its stakeholders.”


Statement on Yokogawa’s aspiration for sustainability
Yokogawa will work , to achieve net-zero emissions, to make a transition to a circular economy, and ensure the well-being of all by 2050,  thus making the world a better place for future generations.

We will undergo the necessary transformation to achieve these goals by 1. becoming more adaptable and resilient, 2. evolving our businesses to engage in regenerative value creation, and 3. promoting co-innovation with our stakeholders.

Achieve net-zero emissions; stopping climate change
Climate change is an urgent issue that requires a global response. We aim for net-zero emissions, which means that the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere do not rise due to the balance of emissions and the absorption of greenhouse gases, which can be accomplished through the introduction of renewable energy and efficient use of energy. We are also working to reduce the impact of natural disasters and respond to biodiversity issues.

Make the transition to a circular economy; circulation of resources and efficiency
The transformation from a one-way economy based on the take, make, and dispose model to an economy where resources are circulated without waste, and the transition to businesses that emphasize services, is under way. We aim to realize a social framework and ecosystem in which various resources are circulated without waste and assets are utilized effectively. We are also contributing to the efficient use of water resources and the supply of safe drinking water.

Ensure well-being; quality life for all
With the aim of achieving the physical, mental, and social well-being described in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by the United Nations in 2015, we support people’s health and prosperity through the achievement of safe and comfortable workplaces and our pursuits in such areas as the life sciences and drug discovery. We promote human resource development and employment creation in local communities, alongside diversity and inclusion.

 

@YokogawaIA #PAuto @UNFCCC


Instsignpost's Blog

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Asset integrity demands special people with special approach.

Staff responsible for asset integrity should be ‘cup half empty’ types; they should be intuitively sceptical and constantly expect the worst to happen because asset failure can have extremely serious safety, environmental and financial effects. In addition, these people need to possess a highly methodical, risk-based approach to asset management, with almost obsessive attention to detail.

The pressure for ageing assets to perform for extended periods has probably never been greater, so the demand for effective, reliable inspections is enormous. However, there is also pressure for this work to be as fast and efficient as possible in order to minimise down-time. The protection of asset integrity therefore relies on the availability of inspection tools that meet this demand.

As NDT Market Manager at Ashtead Technology, one of Steve Drake’s responsibilities is to ensure that the company’s fleet of rental and sale instruments meet the demands of the asset integrity testing community, so he is well placed to comment on the latest technological developments. “Many NDT technologies are high value items, so it doesn’t make financial sense to purchase this equipment for occasional use. We invest in these instruments so that our clients don’t have to. By making this equipment available for hire, we provide access to the latest technology without the burden of capital cost. But that’s not the only driver behind our investments; in addition to financial choice, we also aim to offer technology choice, which means that we continually invest in a variety of technologies so that customers can select the instrument that best suits their application.”

A further advantage of instrument rental lies with the ability to call upon technology at short notice – when existing equipment is in use elsewhere or becomes unavailable for some reason. As a result, the ability to dip into a pool of rental instruments allows asset inspectors to avoid the costs of over-tooling.

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
Corrosion under insulation has long been an insidious form of corrosion because traditionally it has been difficult to measure and predict without physically removing the insulation. The potential costs of CUI are also enormous, so the launch of the Eddyfi Lyft is highly significant because it provides asset inspection and maintenance staff with a fast, reliable, flexible tool for this vital work.

The Eddyfi Lyft employs Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) in a portable, rugged, battery-powered NDT instrument with connect-anywhere wired and wireless communications. Designed to improve the speed, ease and quality of inspections with real-time C-scan imaging, the Lyft offers fast data acquisition (up to 15 readings per second) grid-mapping and dynamic scanning modes. Three different sized standard probes and a specialised splash-zone probe enable the inspection of wall thicknesses up to 64mm, insulation up to 203mm thick (fibreglass, plastic wrap, concrete, or other non-ferrous materials), as well as stainless steel, aluminium, and galvanized steel weather jackets.

The Lyft’s unique compensated wall thickness (CWT) tool improves inspection accuracy by quantifying the minimum wall thickness of a specific region in a C-scan, and specialised algorithms isolate a defect’s contribution to the signal to more precisely compute remaining wall thickness.

The potential for CUI is greatest in marine environments, hot and humid environments, and in locations with high rainfall, aggressive atmospheres or steam tracing leaks. Intermittent wet and dry conditions, or systems that operate below the dew point can encourage CUI and some insulating materials may contain contaminants such as sulphides and chlorides, or may retain moisture, or be designed in a way that restricts moisture drainage.

In addition to CUI, applications for the Eddyfi Lyft include corrosion under fireproofing, flow-accelerated corrosion, corrosion blisters and scabs, splash zone and underwater, surface corrosion, and corrosion under coatings and at waterworks.

Corrosion Inspection
The Olympus OmniScan phased array ultrasonic systems are some of the most popular instruments in Ashtead’s entire rental fleet. The OmniScan MX2 for example increases testing efficiencies, ensuring superior manual and advanced UT performance with faster setups, test cycles, and reporting, in addition to universal compatibility with all phased array and ultrasound modules. The MX2 unit is equipped with advanced features such as the ability to use PA and UT channels simultaneously. As a modular platform, the MX2 houses more than 10 different Olympus modules and Ashtead Technology’s engineers are able to advise on the best setup for every application.

The Olympus HydroFORM corrosion mapping scanner employs an ingenious water-column concept that eliminates the need for a wedge, thereby providing the benefits of a phased array immersion-tank inspection. Designed for the detection of wall-thickness reductions due to corrosion, abrasion, and erosion the HydroFORM also detects mid-wall damage such as hydrogen-induced blistering or manufacturing-induced laminations, and can easily differentiate these anomalies from loss of wall thickness.

In applications such as corrosion mapping, delamination or defect detection in composites, bond inspection and crack detection with eddy current arrays, the Phoenix ISL Tracer freehand scanning system calculates and outputs accurate X-Y positional data for C-scan inspections without the constraints of a scanning frame. The Tracer can be used on an inspection area of up to 2m x 2m from a single position, even in difficult to access areas. Importantly, it does not lose position when the probe is lifted off the surface and then replaced, so maximum scan coverage is achieved up to and around obstructions.

The Silverwing Scorpion is a motorised magnetic inspection tool, able to inspect vertical, curved and even overhead surfaces. Designed for cost-effective A and B-scan inspections, the Scorpion is a dry-coupled UT crawler that connects with the UT Lite data acquisition instrument via a 30 meter umbilical cord. Dry coupling removes the need for a constant water supply and a magnet in front of the wheel probe removes the cost and safety issues associated with scaffolding or rope access. When combined with the UT Lite the Scorpion continuously records thickness measurements as it moves over the inspection surface. The recorded thickness information is presented in the software as an A-scan trace, a digital thickness measurement and a B-scan profile.

Steve Drake summarising said: “Every tank, pipe or vessel is different; not just in age and material of construction, but also in build and maintenance quality. The environment can also have a significant impact on the quality and integrity of an asset, as can operational conditions. It is important therefore for inspection staff to deploy the most appropriate instrumentation, which is why our customers find it so useful to be able to select from a large fleet of the latest technologies and to seek our advice when making these important choices.”

#NDT @ashteadtech  #PAuto


Instsignpost's Blog

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

The School of Materials at the University of Manchester Utilise Deben’s Mechanical Stages to Characterise Structure and Behaviour at the Micro- and Nano- Scale

Image Credits: Deben The School of Materials at the University of Manchester is the largest school of its kind in Europe. It has arguably one of the highest research levels of any university for...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Measuring CO2 to optimise bulk storage of food.

Meeting the food requirements of a growing global population is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the need for additional food, it is estimated that 50-60% of grain is lost after harvesting, at a cost of about $ 1 trillion per year. (See note 1 below)

One of the major reasons for lost grain is spoilage due to mould or insect infestation during storage.2 To provide a constant supply of grain year-round, after grains are harvested they are often kept in long term storage. Maintaining the quality of stored grain is crucial, both to ensure the quality of the final food products, and to prevent economic losses for farmers.

Edinburgh Sensors GascardNG Sensor

Insects and moulds can grow in stored grain, and their ability to flourish depends on the temperature and moisture of the stored grain. Moulds are the most common cause of grain spoilage and can cause changes in the appearance and quality of stored grains. Some moulds can release toxic chemicals called mycotoxins which can suppress the immune system, reduce nutrient absorption, cause cancer, and even be lethal in high doses. It is therefore crucially important to prevent the presence of mycotoxins in food products.2

Monitoring Stored Grain
Farmers are advised to check their stored grain weekly for signs of spoilage.3 Traditionally, grains are checked visually and by odour. Grain sampling can allow earlier detection of insects and moulds, but these methods can be tedious and time-consuming. Rapid, simple methods are needed for early detection of spoilage and to prevent grain losses.2

When moulds and insects grow, and respire, they produce CO2, moisture and heat. Temperature sensors detect increases in temperature caused by mould growth or insect infestation, therefore indicating the presence of grain spoilage. However, they are not able to detect temperature increases caused by infestation unless the infestation is within a few meters of the sensors. CO2 sensors can detect the CO2 produced by moulds and insects during respiration. As the CO2 gas moves with air currents, CO2 sensors can detect infestations that are located further away from the sensor than temperature sensors. CO2 measurements are therefore an important part of the toolkit needed to monitor stored grain quality.2

Using CO2 Measurements to Detect Spoilage
CO2 monitoring can be used for early detection of spoilage in stored grains, and to monitor the quality of stored grains. Safe grain storage usually results in CO2 concentrations below 600 ppm, while concentrations of 600-1500 ppm indicate the onset of mould growth. CO2 concentrations above 1500 ppm indicate severe infestations and could represent the presence of mycotoxins.4

CO2 measurements can be taken easily, quickly and can detect infestations 3-5 weeks earlier than temperature monitoring. Once spoilage is detected, the manager of the storage facility can address the problem by aerating, turning, or selling the grain. Furthermore, CO2 measurements can aid in deciding which storage structure should be unloaded first.2

Research published by Purdue University and Kansas State University have confirmed that high CO2 levels detected by stationary and portable devices are associated with high levels of spoilage and the presence of mycotoxins.4,5 Furthermore, they compared the ability of temperature sensors and CO2 sensors in a storage unit filled with grain to detect the presence of a simulated ‘hot spot’ created using a water drip to encourage mould growth.

The CO2 concentration in the headspace of the storage unit showed a strong correlation with the temperature at the core of the hot spot, and the CO2 sensors were, therefore, able to detect biological activity. The temperature sensors were not able to detect the mould growth, despite being placed within 0.3-1 m of the hotspot.6

To enable efficient monitoring of grain spoilage accurate, reliable and simple to use CO2 detectors are required. Gascard NG Gas Detector from Edinburgh Sensors provide accurate CO2 measurements along with atmospheric data, enabling grain storage managers to make decisions with confidence.

The Gascard NG Gas Detector uses a proprietary dual wavelength infrared sensor to enable the long term, reliable measurement of CO2 over a wide range of concentrations and in temperatures ranging from 0-45 °C. Measurements are unaffected by humidity (0-95% relative humidity) and the onboard pressure and temperature sensors provide real-time environmental compensation, resulting in the most accurate CO2 concentration readings.

Conclusion
Easy, fast, and accurate CO2 concentration monitoring during grain storage can provide early detection of grain spoilage, resulting in reduced grain losses, higher quality stored grain, and lower mycotoxin levels. CO2 monitoring could save millions of dollars annually in the grain production industry.4


References

  1. Kumar D, Kalita P, Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries. Foods 6(1):8, 2017.
  2. http://www.world-grain.com/Departments/Grain-Operations/2016/7/Monitoring-CO2-in-stored-grain.aspx?cck=1 Accessed May 25th, 2017.
  3. HGCA Grain storage guide for cereals and oilseeds, third edition, available from: https://cereals.ahdb.org.uk/media/490264/g52-grain-storage-guide-3rd-edition.pdf Accessed May 25th, 2017.
  4. Maier DE, Channaiah LH, Martinez-Kawas, A, Lawrence JS, Chaves EV, Coradi PC, Fromme GA, Monitoring carbon dioxide concentration for early detection of spoilage in stored grain. Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 425, 2010.
  5. Maier DE, Hulasare R, Qian B, Armstrong P, Monitoring carbon dioxide levels for early detection of spoilage and pests in stored grain. Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection PS10-6160, 2006.
  6. Ileleji KE, Maier DE, Bhat C, Woloshuk CP, Detection of a Developing Hot Spot in Stored Corn with a CO2 Sensor. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22(2):275-289, 2006.

 


Instsignpost's Blog

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Tapping Energy Out of Human Movement

Consider wearing a skirt, shirt, or jacket that can power personal electronic devices such as fitness tracker, mobile phone, and the like while walking, waving, or just sitting down. This can be...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Introducing the FlexAL-2D the ALD Plasma Processing System for 2D Materials

Oxford Instruments’ ALD and 2D technical specialists have teamed up with Eindhoven University of Technology research teams to develop the innovative FlexAL-2D for atomic layer deposition (ALD)...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Researchers Develop Innovative Technique for Synthesizing MoS2

Oxford Instruments has succeeded in commercializing wafer-scale fabrication technology for 2D material MoS2 by employing the world’s first non-destructive quality control method from the National...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

EV Group Unveils Breakthrough Low-Temperature Laser Debonding Solution For Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging

Close up of EVG's next-generation laser debonding module with solid-state UV laser scanning across the surface of a fixed wafer. (Image Credits: EV Group)   Designed as a module for...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Advanced Nanomechanical Characterization Centre Opens in India

Nanomechanics Inc., the world’s leading provider of nano-mechanical testing equipment, announced the establishment of the Advanced Nanomechanical Characterization Centre (ANCC) in Hyderabad,...
AZoNano.com - Nanotechnology News Feed

Posted in Measurement | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment